
ARPN Journal of Engineering and
Applied Sciences July 2020  Vol. 15 No. 14 


Title: 
Practical implementation of cascade
control approach with PI controllers to control the speed of a permanent
magnet DC motor 
Author (s): 
Ismaeil R. Alnaab 
Abstract: 
An
experimental investigation was conducted to control the speed of a
permanent magnet brushed direct current motor under cascade control
approach. The investigation dealt with studying the performance of the
motor under open loop, current loop and speed loop conditions. The
results then compared to similar investigations done by researchers. The
investigation was implemented on software and hardware models with the
help of MATLAB Simulink, MPLAB software and LabVIEW. PMDC motor
mechanical and electrical characteristics were studied first, then they
were implemented in MATLAB Simulink. A cascade control model was
designed in Simulink environment and linked with the motor via HBridge
simulation model. The cascade control has the following features, two
Proportional Integral (PI) controllers, one for speed loop and the other
for current loop, Integrator windup feature and some limiters. The
performance of the speed control was studied successfully and motor
speed was under control. The effect of tuning PI controller gains was
observed. Six important tasks were focused on in this project which are
Unipolar PWM generation, speed and current measurements, Integrator
windup, speed transit and speed profile. The real time implementation
was a success and some of the measurements were compared with a
simulation model. MPLAB software was used to write the codes in C
language for the cascade control loops. 


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Title: 
Infiltration capacity of sandy clay by
rainfall simulator test 
Author (s): 
Elifas Bunga 
Abstract: 
The
study was a laboratory research aimed to identify the infiltration
capacity value of one kind of soil in relationship with rainfall
intensity and degree of surface slope. The rainfall intensity variations
used were 45 mm/hr, 60 mm/hr and 75 mm/hr with the degrees of surface
slope 5°, 15° and 30°. The result of the study indicates that the
initial infiltration capacity value (fo) was determined by rainfall
intensity rather than the degree of surface slope. The maximum
infiltration intensity (fo) was proportional with the rainfall intensity
but inversely proportional to the degree of surface acclivity. The
degree of surface slope was > 30° and the maximum infiltration capacity
value (fc) is almost constant. In addition, the infiltration capacity
rate curve decreased with the same value of rainfall intensity with the
same degree of surface slope. The infiltration capacity rate decreased
slower at the smaller surface slope than the bigger one. Based on the
study result, the Horton formula has been modified. 


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Title: 
Spectroscopic researching of the
interaction reaction of cocamidopropyl betaine with 12molybdophosphate
heteropolyacid 
Author (s): 
Mironyak M. O., Volnyanska O. V., Labyak O. V.,
Balalayev O. K., Nikolenko M. V., Kovalenko V. L. and Kotok V. A. 
Abstract: 
The
influence of the acidity of the working solution on the properties of
the ampholytic surfaceactive substance of cocamidopropyl betaine is
researched by a spectroscopic method in the UVrange. The possibility of
the reaction behavior between the organic cation of
cocamidopropyl betaine and the anion of 12molybdophosphate
heteropolyacid was investigated, and the nature of the bond in the
obtained ionic associates was determined. The ionic nature of the bond
in the product of the reaction of cocamidopropyl betaine and
12molybdophosphate heteropoly acid was also confirmed by IRspectroscopy.
The composition of the complex and the ratio of the components of the
reaction was determined spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 248 nm
by saturation method. The results of these researches can be used to
develop methods for the determination of cocamidopropyl betaine in
various industrial objects by the ionometric method using potentiometric
sensors sensitive to this substance. 


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Title: 
Design and analysis ongrid photovoltaic
system for Najaf province  Iraq 
Author (s): 
Abed AlAbass Muhseen Jassem, Mohammed
Chessab Mahdi and Jaafer sadiq 
Abstract: 
Researchers around the world are now working to develop renewable energy
sources to use instead of traditional fossil fuels to avoid global
warming. Photovoltaic technology is one of the main renewable energy
source in the world. In spite of fast developing, the energy amount
generated by photovoltaic systems still small comparing to world need.
In this work, for the purpose of addressing the acute shortage in the
supply of electricity in Iraq as well as to reduce greenhouse emissions
by increasing the proportion of renewable energy from the total energy
mix, a gridconnected 3 KW photovoltaic system are built to install on
the roofs of houses and residential units at Najaf CityIraq as the
proposed location. PVsyst simulation software from PVSYST SA have been
used to design and simulate photovoltaic system. Module orientation,
system components, and other design parameters are evaluated. The
various losses such as temperature losses, module quality losses, wiring
resistance losses, are determined in addition to calculating performance
ratio. 


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Title: 
Algorithm for the recovery of missing data
in the Bogotá River 
Author (s): 
Wilson R. López S., César A. Perdomo Ch.
and Julián R. Camargo L. 
Abstract: 
There
are different methods for the estimation of missing data; among the most
used is substitution by arithmetic mean and interpolation, which have
been used in HFA (Hydrological Frequency Analysis). Interpolation
consists of being able to estimate a function f(x) that describes the
behavior of already known data and thus estimate an arbitrary x that is
within the limits of known values. In this article, a study of different
interpolation methods will be carried out to estimate missing parameters
related to water quality in the Bogotá River. 


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Title: 
Utilization of quarry dust in paving
blocks 
Author (s): 
Shyam Prakash Koganti, M. Sai Narendra, D.
Jaya Krishna and Kaza Raga Sai 
Abstract: 
In
India, National highways (NH) covers 1,00,087 km and other types of
highways (state highways, major district roads, other district roads and
village roads) covers 53,82,495 km. Sand is heavily used both in
flexible and rigid pavements, created an increase in the demand of sand.
As per National Highway Development Programme (NHDP), it is estimated to
lay 30km road per day now. Presently, 71,772 km network of National
Highways comprises only 1.7% of the total length of roads, but carries
over 40% of the total traffic around the country both in length and
breadth. Considering the target growth rate of about 9%, it is estimated
that the total target National Highway network of about 85,000 km may be
considered as reasonable for the 12th Five Year Plan (2012 – 2017), for
the region development which are not connected by National Highway.
During fifties concrete paver blocks were introduced due to scarcity of
building materials in Holland. Paving blocks are in rectangular shape
and bricks size. Paving blocks under non traffic category utilizes in
Building premises, monument premises, landscapes, public garden/parks,
domestic drives, paths and patios, embankment slopes, sand stabilization
area, etc., Testing of compressive strength is classified into three
series. The compressive strength results of quarry dust concrete (cubes)
obtained in the first series, for normal cube it is observed as 28.45
N/mm2. In the second series, the change in grades up to 40 percent
replacement increases the compressive strength. As the increase in age
of concrete the compressive strength increase up to 30 percent
replacement of quarry dust as a fine aggregate in the third series. 


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Title: 
Development of optimized voltage level
shifter for Nanoscale applications 
Author (s): 
Srinivasulu Gundala, Kommu Siddhartha
Mavovarakumar, Kona Naga Nandini, Sravani Gantala, Javisetty Ravi Sankar
Varma and Chakrala Navya 
Abstract: 
Multi
voltage clustered systems are the basic and vital power decrease
techniques, these approaches employs Level shifters to interconnect
“Multiple voltage domains” to reduce power in core/module level. The
Level Shifter may considered as area, power and delay overheads when its
own power, delays are high. We proposed a circuit technique with broad
shifting range for Nanoscale applications. In this brief, for
minimization of current contention to attain both efficient and robust
level shifting, we introduced new LS with series of Diode current
limiters, which minimizes the dynamic power and propagation delay.
Implementation of the LS in 130nm technology makes the proposed LS in
accomplishing both efficient and robust level shifting from deep
subthreshold voltage 0.15V to supply voltage 1.25V. The developed LS
have attained an average propagation delay of 6.20ns, Energy efficiency
of 26.5fJ. 


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Title: 
Classical and nonlinear predictive
control applied to a nonlinear system of coupled tanks 
Author (s): 
Mayra Olaya Casanova, Hamilton Sánchez
Lara and Diego F. SendoyaLosada 
Abstract: 
This
document presents the design, implementation and comparison of
algorithms to control the liquid level in a nonlinear system of two
coupled tanks. First, a ProportionalIntegral (PI) controller was
designed; then, a Modelbased Predictive Controller (MPC) using the
Nonlinear Extended Prediction SelfAdaptive Control (NEPSAC) algorithm
was designed. The performance of the controllers was evaluated in two
scenarios: Setpoint Tracking and Disturbance Rejection. It is concluded
that the NEPSAC algorithm presents better performance with respect to
the PI, since the PI works correctly in regions very close to the
setpoint while the NEPSAC, not requiring linearization of the system,
has a performance that does not depend on the setpoint, presenting
excellent characteristics at any reference point. To validate the
results obtained, the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was used, which
resulted in better values for the NEPSAC than for the PI. 


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Title: 
Hybrid RSWHEPower law transformation
algorithm for improving the enhancement of the image 
Author (s): 
Padmavathy V. S. and Priya R. 
Abstract: 
In
image processing, contrast enhancement is an essential task due to the
capability of improvement in image visibility. For improving the quality
of the picture, the noise should be reduced, and the contrast should be
high. The existing image enhancement methods do not have better
performance when the model has a dark background. To overcome this
issue, this paper proposes a hybrid of Recursively Separated and
Weighted Histogram Equalization and Power law transformation algorithm
using DWT. DWT is used for the noise reduction, and RSWHE combined with
Power law transformation is used for improving the brightness of the
image. RSWHE algorithm enhances the low frequency components of the
image, whereas the Power law transformation enhances the high frequency
components of the image. This algorithm is combined with DWT and a
Wiener filter as the denoise filter, to enhance the low contrast image
to high contrast with less noise and by having weighting function which
smoothens each subhistogram of pictures and also decreases the effect
of increasing intensity on a color image. Results illustrate that the
proposed hybrid RSWHEPower law transformation using DWT has improved
performance in the image enhancement of the dark image. The contrast of
the input image is highly improved with the proposed technique. 


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Title: 
GalerkinVlasov method for the elastic
buckling analysis of kirchhoff plate with one free edge and three simply
supported edges under uniform uniaxial compression 
Author (s): 
Onyedikachi Aloysius Oguaghamba and
Charles Chinwuba Ike 
Abstract: 
This
work presents the GalerkinVlasov method for solving the elastic
buckling problem of Kirchhoff plate (length a and width b) under
uniaxial uniform compressive load applied at the two opposite simply
supported edges (x = 0 and x = a) with the edge y = 0 simply supported
and the edge y = b free. Mathematically, the problem is a boundary value
problem (BVP) represented by a partial differential equation (PDE) over
the domain subject to boundary conditions at the plate edges. Upon
suitable selection of basis functions the GalerkinVlasov method
converts the domain equation to an integral equation, and ultimately to
ordinary differential equations (ODE). The ODE is solved, and boundary
conditions along y = 0, and y = b for the considered problem used to
generate system of homogeneous equations in terms of the integration
constants. The characteristic buckling equation is found as a
transcendental equation from the condition for nontrivial solutions of
the system of homogeneous equations. The roots of the transcendental
equation obtained by computational software and iterative techniques are
used to obtain the elastic buckling loads for the first two buckling
modes, for various aspect ratios (a/b) and for Poisson ratio of
m =
0.25. It is found that the critical elastic buckling load occurs at the
first buckling mode, and the values of the critical elastic buckling
loads computed are in close agreement with values obtained previously by
Timoshenko. 


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Title: 
Next generation main battle tank. Part II:
Converting old MBTs into unmanned MBTs (UMBT) 
Author (s): 
Luca Piancastelli, Eugenio Pezzuti and
Stefano Cassani 
Abstract: 
Modern MBTs (Main Battle Tank) are extremely expensive. Many outdated
MBTs and other armored vehicles, often lacking the required armor
protection, are still kept in depots. It is now convenient to upgrade
them to optionally unmanned weapons by adding a humanoid driver, and a
robotic arm as a loader. Sensors, an optional automatic driving system,
a control and communication suite would complete the transformation. The
main armament and secondary armament may be also changed or upgraded.
The offtheshelf huge electronic equipment can be installed wireless
inside the hull. The old crew compartment may be spoiled of all the
human related parts. Only the driver seat may be kept in order to leave
the capability to remove the humanoid, robotized driver and reinstate
the human one. This upgrade should also include a diagnostic system for
the vehicle, the sensors and the additional systems to reduce the
maintenance burden. An additional, specialized, lightweight armor suite
should be focused to protect the mobilization system, the robots, the
control and the communication system. This second part of the paper
introduces a few options to convert the Leopard 1 MBT to an optionally
piloted UMBT (Unmanned Main Battle Tank). A first, minimal step, is just
the automation of the original tank. In a second step, the weight is
reduced by installing a smaller 60mm cannon with a lighter, but more
numerous ammunition storage. A third step increases the firepower by
installing on the main turret an automated turret with a 12.7 or 30mm
cannon with an optional additional 7.62 machinegun. It is also highly
advisable to add an APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) and a battery to reduce
IR (infrared) signature, improve main engine life and reduce
maintenance. 


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Title: 
Side drainage design for roads using
SDDRoads® 
Author (s): 
Julián Andrés Pulecio Díaz, Oscar Camilo
Valderrama Riveros and Myriam Rocío Pallares Muñoz 
Abstract: 
In
this paper SDDRoads® software is introduced for the side drain design
for roads using the rational empirical methods and the Continuity and
Manning equations. The Hypertext Preprocessor (Php) programming language
applied to develop SDDRoads® allows multiplatform running and since this
is a Web application it works on all operating systems. SDDRoads®
software helps to estimate the length of ditch for four triangular
crosssections, one of these built on ground and three ones built with
concrete. SDDRoads® software proves to be an interesting calculation
application to use from anywhere in the world for its versatility since
being a Web application it could be installed in computer, tablet or
Smartphone (multiplatform). The results obtained using SDDRoads® were
satisfactorily verificated with a study case proposed by the INVIAS
(2007) proving that SDDRoads® is able to solve designs adapted to the
constructive reality of ditches from runoff coefficient (C),
longitudinal slope of ditch (S), rainfall intensity (I), impluvium width
(B) and velocity of water (v) data. 


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